The Relationship Between Employee Attitudes in the Pygmalion Effect and Trust in Supervisors: A Study on Hotel Establishments


  • Şerif Ahmet DEMİRDAĞ
  • Eray TURPCU



Pygmalion effect, Trust in supervisors, Employee attitudes hotels


Regardless of the type of business, the common goal of every establishment is to make sustainable profits and thus to ensure its continuity. In the service sector, which also includes tourism establishments, where social relations and labor power are intense, the productivity and profitability of establishments completely depend on the human factor. For this reason, the managers in these establishments want to get the highest benefit from the employees and they enter into an expectation in this direction. Managers who expect employees to show higher performance reveal these expectations by showing interest to their employees. This situation is referred to as the “Pygmalion effect” in the literature. On the other hand, in addition to this effect, the trust of the employees in their supervisors plays an important role in increasing the productivity in the establishments. The aim of this study is to reveal the relationship/effect between the attitudes of employees working in hotels towards the Pygmalion effect and their level of trust in the supervisor. This study only covers employees of four-star and five-star hotels operating in Istanbul. In the study, only the Pygmalion effect and trust in the supervisor variables of the participants were discussed, and other forms of organizational behavior were not focused on. The important factor here is the resources and transportation allocated to the study, especially time limitation. Questionnaire technique was used as a data collection tool, and 423 usable questionnaires were obtained from four-star and five-star hotels operating in Istanbul. According to the findings obtained from the analysis of the data, it was found that the participants' perception of the Pygmalion effect and their level of trust in the supervisor were high. When the relations and effects between the variables were examined, it was observed that there were weak relationships between the attitudes in the Pygmalion effect of the participants and their level of trust in the supervisor. On the other hand, it was determined that there was a very weak relationship between Pygmalion effect attitude in the “general self-efficacy (GSE)” dimension and trust in the supervisor, a very weak relationship between the Pygmalion effect attitude in the “managerial self-efficacy (MSE)” dimension and trust in the supervisor, and a weak relationship between the Pygmalion effect attitude in the “Pygmalion Attitude Index (PAI)” dimension and trust in the supervisor.


Alharbi, S. S., & Abuelhassan, A. E. (2020). The impact of trust in supervisor on turnover intention: Organizational commitment as a mediating mechanism. International Journal on Recent Trends in Business and Tourism (IJRTBT), 4(2), 1-8.

Aristana, I. N., Arsawan, I. W. E., & Rustiarini, N. W. (2022). Employee loyalty during slowdown of Covid-19: Do satisfaction and trust matter?. International Journal of Tourism Cities, 8(1), 223-243. Doi:

Atkinson, S., & Butcher, D. (2003). Trust in managerial relationships. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 18(4), 282-304.

Bayram, Ü. (2014). Pygmalion effect between managers and employees in tourism sector: An application in hotel management, (Doctoral dissertation). Gazi University Institute of Educational Sciences, Ankara/Türkiye.

Chen, Y. H., & Koç, H. (2021). Kişilik tipi, iş stresi düzeyi ve işgören performansı ilişkisi: turizm işletmeleri çalışanları üzerinde bir inceleme. Turizm Akademik Dergisi, 8(2), 159-172.

Crane, M. (1951). Pygmalion: Bernard Shaw's Dramatic Theory and practice. The Modern Language Association of America, 66(6), 879-885.

Currall, S. C., & Epstein, M. J. (2003). The fragility of organizational trust: Lessons from the Rise and Fall of Enron. Organizational Dynamics, 32(2), 193-206.

Demirdağ, Ş. A. (2015). The relationship between organizational trust and job satisfaction: A research on the hotel establishments. (Master’s thesis), Gazi University Institute of Social Sciences, Ankara/Türkiye.

Demirdağ, Ş. A., Aydın, İ., & Özdemir, H. İ. (2020). Relationship between burnout and intention to leave in hotel establishments: The case of Kırşehir/Turkey hotels. Journal of Tourism and Gastronomy Studies, 8(1), 417-431.

Driscoll, J. W. (1978). Trust and participation in organizational decision making as predictors of satisfaction. Academy of Management Journal, 21(1), 44-56.

Eden, D. (1984). Self-fulfilling prophecy as a management tool: Harnessing Pygmalion. Academy of Management Review, 9(1), 64-73.

Eden, D. (1988). Pygmalion, goal setting, and expectancy: Compatible ways to boost productivity. Academy of Management Review, 13(4), 639-652.

Eden, D., Geller, D., Gewirtz, A., Gordon-Terner, R., Inbar, I., Liberman, M., Pass, Y., Salomon-Segev, I., & Shalit, M. (2000). Implanting Pygmalion leadership style through workshop training: Seven field experiments. The Leadership Quarterly, 11(2), 171-210.

Giffin, K. (1967). The contribution of studies of source credibility to a theory of interpersonal trust in the communication department. Psychological Bulletin, 68(2), 104-120.

Gilson, L. (2003). Trust and development of health care as a social institution. Social Science & Medicine, 56(7), 1453-1468.

Güçer, E., & Demirdağ, Ş. A. (2014). Organizational trust and job satisfaction: A study on hotels. Business Management Dynamics, 4(1), 12-28.

Güçlü, İ. (2020). Sosyal bilimlerde nicel veri analizi, örneklerle SPSS uygulamaları ve yorumlaması. Ankara: Gazi Kitabevi.

Hai, S., & Park, I.-J. (2021). The Accelerating effect of intrinsic motivation and trust toward supervisor on helping behavior based on the curvilinear model among hotel frontline employees in China. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management, 47(3), 12-21.


James, H. S., & Sykuta, M. E. (2005). Property right and organizational characteristics of producer-owned firms and organizational trust. Annals of Public and Cooperative Economics, 76(4), 545-580.

Kan Sönmez, N. (2020). The relationship between psychological empowerment and trust in supervisor in hotel enterprises. Journal of Tourism and Gastronomy Studies,

(1), 291-306. Doi:

Kierein, N. M., & Gold, M. A. (2000). Pygmalion in work organizations: A Meta‐Analysis. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 21(8), 913-928.

Kim, M. S., Kim, S. H., Koo, D. W., & Cannon, D. F. (2019). Pygmalion leadership: Theory and application to the hotel industry. International Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Administration, 20(3), 301-328. Doi:

Koç, H., & Yazıcıoğlu, İ. (2011). Yöneticiye duyulan güven ile iş tatmini arasındaki ilişki: Kamu ve özel sektör karşılaştırması. Doğuş Üniversitesi Dergisi, 12(1), 46-57.

Koo, D. W., Lee, S. M., & Jang, H. J. (2016). The chain hotel chef's Pygmalion leadership for effective teamwork of cooks. The Korean Journal of Franchise Management, 7(1), 13-20. Doi:

Law, H. H. (1932). The name Galatea in the Pygmalion Myth. The Classical Journal, 27(5), 337-342.

Lewis, J. D., & Weigert, A. (1985). Trust as a social reality. Social Forces, 63(4), 967-985.

Lorcu, F. (2015). Örneklerle veri analizi SPSS uygulamalı. Ankara: Detay Yayıncılık.

Manav, S. (2018). Evaluation of the Pygmalion and Golem Effect in terms of behavioral adaptation of employees at food-beverage enterprises, (Master’s thesis). Balıkesir University Institute of Social Sciences, Balıkesir/Türkiye.

Mayer, R. C., Davis J. H., & Schoorman, F. D. (1995). An integrative model of organizational trust. Academy of Management Review, 20(3), 709-734.

Merton, R. K. (1948). The Self-Fulfilling Prophecy. The Antioch Review, 8(2), 193-210.

Omarov, A. (2009). Organizational trust and job satisfaction: A research in the private sector, (Master’s thesis). Dokuz Eylül University Institute of Social Sciences, İzmir/Türkiye.

Özdamar, K. (2003). Modern bilimsel araştırma yöntemleri. Eskişehir: Kaan Kitabevi.

Pelit, E., & Gökçe, Y. (2019). Yöneticiye duyulan güven ile çalışma yaşam kalitesinin işten ayrılma niyetine etkisi: Otel işletmeleri işgörenleri üzerinde bir araştırma. Balikesir University Journal of Social Sciences Institute, 22(41), 503-530. Doi:

Puusa, A., & Tolvanen, U. (2006). Organizational identity and trust. Electronic Journal of Business Ethics and Organization Studies, 11(2), 29-33.

Rosenthal, R., & Fode, K. L. (1961). The problem of experimenter outcome-bias. In: Series research in social psychology (pp. 9-14). Washington, DC: National Institute of Social and Behavioral Science.

Rosenthal, R., & Jacobson, L. (1968). Pygmalion in the classroom: Teacher expectation and pupils' intellectual development. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc.

Rosenthal, R., & Lawson, R. (1964). A longitudinal study of the effects of experimenter bias on the operant learning of laboratory rats. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 2(2), 61-72.

Schermelleh-Engel, K., Moosbrugger, H., & Müller, H. (2003). Evaluating the fit of structural equation models: Tests of significance and descriptive goodness-of-fit measures. Methods of Psychological Research Online, 8(2), 23-74.

Schoorman, F. D., Mayer, R. C., & Davis, J. H. (2007). An Integrative model of organizational trust: Past, present and future. Academy of Management Review, 32(2), 344-354.

Seçer, İ. (2015). SPSS ve LISREL ile pratik veri analizi-analiz ve raporlaştırma. Ankara: Anı Yayıncılık.

Smith, J. B. & Barclay, D. W. (1997). The effects of organizational differences and trust on the effectiveness of selling partner relationships. The Journal of Marketing, 61(1), 3-21.

Sümer, N., (2000). Yapısal eşitlik modelleri: Temel kavramlar ve örnek uygulamalar, Türk Psikoloji Yazıları, 3(6), 49-74.

Şimşek, Ö. F. (2007). Yapısal eşitlik modellemesine giriş, temel ilkeler ve uygulamalar, Ankara: Ekinoks Yayınları.

T.R. Culture and Tourism Ministry, İstanbul Directorate of Culture and Tourism, (2023). İstanbul tourism statistics – 2023. Retrieved from

Ural, A. & Kılıç, İ. (2006). Bilimsel araştırma süreci ve SPSS ile veri analizi (2nd Ed.). Ankara: Detay Yayıncılık.

Whitener, E. M., Brodt, S. E., Korsgaard, M. A., & Werner, J. M. (1998). Managers as initiators of trust: An exchange relationship framework for understanding managerial trustworthy behavior. Academy of Management Review, 23(3), 513-530.



How to Cite

DEMİRDAĞ , Şerif A. ., & TURPCU , E. . (2023). The Relationship Between Employee Attitudes in the Pygmalion Effect and Trust in Supervisors: A Study on Hotel Establishments. Journal of Tourism & Gastronomy Studies, 11(3), 2478–2494.