Elektronik Ağızdan Ağıza Pazarlama Bağlamında Müşteri Değerlendirmeleri ile Gastronomi İmajı Arasındaki İlişki: Gaziantep Üzerine Bir Araştırma (The Relationship Between Customer Evaluations and Gastronomy Image in the Context of Electronic Word of Mouth
Keywords:Gastronomy image, Electronic word of mouth, Customer evaluations, Gaziantep
Tourist expectations for food and beverage businesses operating in the context of gastronomy tourism are constantly increasing. This situation results in the acceleration of competition day by day. This research was conducted in Gaziantep, which is in the gastronomy category of Unesco Creative Cities Network. Electronic word of mouth marketing is a form of communication that occurs between users and buyers for a product or service. In this direction, the main purpose of the research can be expressed as revealing the relationship between the evaluations made by tourists visiting food and beverage establishments with tourism business certificates operating in Gaziantep within the framework of electronic word-of-mouth marketing and gastronomy image. In this research, which was designed in qualitative design, document analysis method was used to collect the data and the data obtained were subjected to content analysis. Within the scope of the research, the evaluations of these businesses were grouped under the themes of price and menu, service and service, physical structure and food and beverages. According to the results obtained, tourists who visit these establishments evaluate that the prices are high and the menus are insufficient in terms of content. On the other hand, it was determined that the food and beverages offered in these establishments were predominantly described as delicious and the establishments were described as ergonomic in terms of space.
Ab-Karim, S., & Chi, C. G. Q. (2010). Culinary tourism as a destination attraction: An empirical examination of destinations' food image. Journal of Hospitality Marketing & Management, 19(6), 531-555.
Arsal, I., Backman, S., & Baldwin, E. (2008). Influence of an online travel community on travel decisions. In P. O’Connor, W. Höpken, & U. Gretzel (Eds.), Information and communication technologies in tourism (pp. 82-93). New York: Springer Wien.
Baş, T. & Akturan, U. (2018). Sosyal Bilimlerde Bilgisayar Destekli Nitel Araştırma Yöntemleri. Ankara: Seçkin Yayınevi
Björk, P., & Kauppinen-Räisänen, H. (2016). Local food: A source for destination attraction. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 28(1), 177–194.
Buhalis, D. & Law, R. (2008). Progress in information technology and tourism management: 20 years on and 10 years after the internet. The state of eTourism research. Tourism Management, 29(4), 609-623.
Chan, Y.Y . Y. & Ngai, E.W.T. (2011). Conceptualising electronic word of mouth activity: An input‐process‐output perspective. Marketing Intelligence & Planning, 29(5), 488-516.
Chuang, H. T. (2009). The rise of culinary tourism and its transformation of food cultures: The National Cuisine og Taiwan. The Copenhagen Journal of Asian Studies, 27(2), 84-108.
Creswell, J. W. (2003). Research: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches. California. EUA: Sage.
Dalgıç, A., Güler, O., & Birdir, K. (2016). Tripadvisor. com’da yer alan restoran şikâyetlerinin analizi: Mersin ve Hatay’da yöresel yiyecek sunan restoranlara yönelik bir araştırma. Journal of Tourism & Gastronomy Studies, 4(1), 153-173.
Filieri, R., Alguezaui, S. & McLeay, F. (2015). Why do travelers trust TripAdvisor? Antecedents of trust towards consumer-generated media and its influence on recommendation adoption and word of mouth. Tourism Management, 51, 174-185.
Filieri, R., Galati, F. & Raguseo, E. (2020). The impact of service attributes and category on e-WOM helpfulness: an investigation of extremely negative and positive ratings using latent semantic analytics and regression analysis. Computers in Human Behavior, 114, 106527.
Fridgen, J. D. (1987). Use of cognitive maps to determine perceived tourism regions. Leisure Sciences, 9(1), 101-117.
Gaziantep İl Kültür ve Turizm Müdürlüğü, (2023). Turizm İstatistikleri. https://gaziantep.ktb.gov.tr/TR-95179/turizm-istatistikleri.html (Erişim Tarihi: 14.07.2023).
Gretzel, U., Yoo, K.H. & Purifoy, M. (2007). Online travel review study: role and impact of online travel reviews”, working paper, Laboratory for Intelligent Systems in Tourism, Department of Recreation, Park and Tourism Sciences, Texas A & M University, College Station, February, TX.
Gupta, A., Dogra, N. & George, B. (2018). What determines tourist adoption of smartphone apps? An analysis based on the UTAUT-2 framework. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Technology, 9(1), 50-64.
Harrison-Walker, L. J. (2001). The measurement of word-of-mouth communication and an investigation of service quality and customer commitment as potential antecedents. Journal of Service Research, 4, 60-75.
Hellier, P. K., Geursen, G. M., Carr, R. A., & Rickard, J. A., (2003). Customer repurchase intention: a general structural equation model. European Journal of Marketing 37, 1762–1800.
Henderson, J. C. (2004). Food as a tourism resource: A view from Singapore. Tourism Recreation Research, 29(3), 69-74.
Hennig-Thurau, T., Gwinner, K., Walsch, G. & Gremler, D. (2004). Electronic word-of-mouth via consumer-opinion platforms: what motivates consumers to articulate themselves on the internet? Journal of Interactive Marketing, 18(1), 38-52.
Horng, J. S., Liu, C. H., Chou, H. Y., & Tsai, C. Y. (2012). Understanding the impact of culinary brand equity and destination familiarity on travel intentions. Tourism management, 33(4), 815-824.
Horng, J.-S., & Tsai, C.-T. (Simon). (2012). Constructing Indicators of Culinary Tourism Strategy: An Application of Resource-Based Theory. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 29(8), 796–816.
İspir, M. (2022). Elazığ’da yiyecek içecek hizmeti sunan restoranlara ilişkin tüketici şikayetlerinin değerlendirilmesi: Elektronik ağızdan ağıza iletişim ortamı tripadvisor örneği. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Issues, 4(2), 57-68.
Jalilvand, R. M., Samiei, N., Dini, B., & Yaghoubi Manzari, P. (2012). Examining the structural relationships of electronic word of mouth, destination image, tourist attitude toward destination and travel intention: An integrated approach. Journal of Destination Marketing & Management, 1(1-2), 134–143.
Jiang, J., Gretzel, U. & Law, R. (2010). Do negative experiences always lead to dissatisfaction? Testing attribution theory in the context of online travel reviews in Gretzel, U., Law, R. and Fuchs, M. (Eds), Information and Communication Technologies in Tourism (pp. 297-308), Springer: Berlin.
Karim, A. S., & Chi, C. G. Q. (2010). Culinary tourism as a destination attraction: An empirical examination of destinations' food image. Journal of Hospitality Marketing & Management, 19(6), 531–555.
Kizilirmak, İ., Ofluoğlu, M., & Şişik, L. (2016). Türkiye’de uygulanan gastronomi turları rotalarının web tabanlı analizi ve değerlendirmesi. Journal of Tourism & Gastronomy Studies, 4(1), 258-269.
Kim, S., Kim, M., Agrusa, J., & Lee, A. (2012). Does a food-themed TV drama affect perceptions of national image and intention to visit a country? An empirical study of Korea TV drama. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 29(4), 313–326.
Lai, M. Y., Khoo-Lattimore, C., & Wang, Y. (2018). A perception gap investigation into food and cuisine image attributes for destination branding from the host perspective: The case of Australia. Tourism Management, 69, 579–595.
Leung, X. Y., Xue, L., & Bai, B. (2015). Internet marketing research in hospitality and tourism: a review and journal preferences. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 27(7), 1556–1572.
Llamero, L. (2014). Conceptual mindsets and heuristics in credibility evaluation of e-Word of Mouth in tourism. Online Information Review, 38(7), 954–968.
Lin, C. H., Morais, D. B., Kerstetter, D. L., & Hou, J. S. (2007). Examining the role of cognitive and affective image in predicting choice across natural, developed, and theme-park destinations. Journal of Travel Research, 46(2), 183-194.
Litvin, S. W., Goldsmith, R. E., & Pan, B. (2018). A retrospective view of electronic word-of-mouth in hospitality and tourism management. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 30(1), 313-325.
Mak, A. H., Lumbers, M., & Eves, A. (2012). Globalisation and food consumption in tourism. Annals of Tourism Research, 39(1), 171-196.
Mendes-Filho, L., Tan, F.B. & Milne, S. (2010). Backpacker use of user-generated content: A consumer empowerment study”, in Gretzel, U., Law, R. and Fuchs, M. (Eds), Information and Communication Technologies in Tourism 2010 (pp. 455-466), Springer: Berlin.
Munar, A. M. & Jacobsen, J.K.S. (2013). Trust and involvement in tourism social media and web-based travel information sources. Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, 13(1), 1-19.
Mykletun, R. J., & Gyimóthy, S. (2010). Beyond the renaissance of the traditional Voss sheep's-head meal: Tradition, culinary art, scariness and entrepreneurship. Tourism Management, 31(3), 434-446.
Nelson, V. (2016). Food and image on the official visitor site of Houston, Texas. Journal of Destination Marketing & Management, 5(2), 133–140.
Oğuzbalaban, G. (2020). Safranbolu Restoranlarına Yönelik Çevrimiçi Müşteri Şikâyetlerinin Analizi: Tripadvisor Örneği. Journal of Tourism & Gastronomy Studies, 8(4), 2898-2915.
Pestek, A., & Cinjarevic, M. (2014). Tourist perceived image of local cuisine: The case of Bosnian food culture. British Food Journal, 116(11), 1821–1838.
Prayag, G. (2008). Image, satisfaction and loyalty The case of Cape Town. Anatolia: An International Journal of Tourism and Hospitality Research, 19(2), 205–224.
Seo, S., & Yun, N. (2015). Multi-dimensional scale to measure destination food image: Case of Korean food. British Food Journal, 117(12), 2914–2929.
Sidali, K. L., Schulze, H. & Spiller, A. (2009). The impact of online reviews on the choice of holiday accommodations in Hopken, W., Gretzel, U. and Law, R. (Eds), Information and Communications Technologies in Tourism 2009 (pp. 87-98), Proceedings of the International Conference in Amsterdam, Springer: Berlin.
Sotiriadis, M. D. & van-Zyl, C. (2013). Electronic word-of-mouth and online reviews in tourism services: the use of Twitter by tourists”, Electronic Commerce Research, 13(1), 103-24.
Sökmen, A. (2006). Yiyecek İçecek Hizmetleri Yönetimi ve İşletmeciliği, Ankara: Detay Yayıncılık.
Şahin, S., Girgin, G. K., Kazoğlu, İ. H., & Çoşkun, G. N. (2018). Gastronomi turistlerinin e-şikâyet davranışları üzerine bir araştırma: Alaçatı örneği. Journal of Tourism & Gastronomy Studies, 6(1), 68-72.
Tasci, A. D., Gartner, W. C., & Tamer Cavusgil, S. (2007). Conceptualization and operationalization of destination image. Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research, 31(2), 194-223.
Tripadvisor (2023). Tripadvisor Hakkında. https://tripadvisor.mediaroom.com/tr-about-us (Erişim Tarihi: 10.07.2023).
Varadarajan, P. R., & Yadav, M. S. (2002). Marketing strategy and the internet: an organizing framework. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 30, 296-312.
Westbrook, R.A. (1987). Product/consumption-based affective responses and postpurchase processes. Journal of Marketing Research, 24(3), 258-70.
Woomi, P., & Soocheong, J. (2008). Destination image and tourist attitude. Tourism Analysis, 13(4), 401–411.
Xie, K. L., Zhang, Z., & Zhang, Z. (2014). The business value of online consumer reviews and management response to hotel performance. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 43, 1-12.
Ye, Q., Law, R., Gu, B., & Chen, W. (2011). The influence of user-generated content on traveler behavior: An empirical investigation on the effects of e-word-of-mouth to hotel online bookings. Computers in Human Behavior, 27(2), 634–639.
Yetgin, D., Keküç, M., & Şayin, M. (2020). Restoranlara Yönelik Tripadvisor Yorumlarının İçerik Analizi Yöntemi İle Değerlendirilmesi: İstanbul Örneği. Journal of Tourism & Gastronomy Studies, 8(3), 2090-2109.
Yıldırım, A., & Simsek, H. (2004). Sosyal Bilimlerde Nitel Arastırma Yöntemleri 4. Basım. Ankara: Seckin Yayıncılık.
Yıldırım, A., & Simsek, H. (2011). Sosyal Bilimlerde Nitel Arastırma Yöntemleri. Ankara: Seckin Yayıncılık.
Zhang, Z., Ye, Q., Law, R., & Li, Y. (2010). The impact of e-word-of-mouth on the online popularity of restaurants: A comparison of consumer reviews and editor reviews. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 29(4), 694-700.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Tourism & Gastronomy Studies
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.